Replication factor A


Single-stranded binding protein. Stabilizes ssDNA in replication fork. Also involved in DNA repair and recombination.






Molecular weight

Heterotrimer: 70 kDa, 30 kDa, 14 KDa (Sc)

Biochemical properties

•ssDNA binding ( high affinity), covers 20-30bp DNA but some what dependent on buffer (1) (2)

Some dna compaction on binding, but not as much as E coli ssb (3)






•cdc45/mcm2 /pole (4) mutual dependence for binding cdc45/rpa??

• Mcm10 (5)

• rad51 (6)

• rad52 (7)

• pob subunit FACT (8) (9) (10)

•Phosphorylated by Mec1 in response to DNA damage (11)



•ku (12)

• wrn  (13) as FFA (in initiation phase replication)



• Helicase (14)



•nucleolin (15) inhibitory happens after hs or genotoxic shock (16) (17)

• mrn complex (18)

• ercc (19)

•various helicases (20) (21) (22) ,

• blm (23)

• wrn (24)

• XPA (25)

• Pol d (26)

•Brca2 (27)



• viral replicator



•2 stage modification in meiosis ime2 then mec1 (29)

• hyperphosphorylation in hu (30)

up to 9 residues modified on genotoxic shock (31)


• bound to DNA (32) (33) (34) (35) (36)

ss binding domains bound to DNA (37)

crystal structure 14/32 (38)

Cellular location and expression


•Component of pre-replication centres (39)

•See increase in soluble rpa throughout S, no change bound. (40) .Suggest ORC is needed for binding. Binds before cdc45 (although others say after (41) does this represent different modes of binding?



Other comments

•Elongation lagging and leading strand synthesis- needs specific protein interactions not just ssDNA binding. Probably acts at multiple points (42)

•Role in DNA repair: (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) () 48


Some part of this is in signalling – for 1 of the primary signals in repair pathways rpa/ss DNA complex allows loading of atrip and atr (49) 43. Some part of this is in signalling – for 1 of the primary signals in repair pathways rpa/ss DNA complex allows loading of atrip and atr (49) (50) (51) (52) (53) . May also have a related control role in normal xenopus cell cycle (54) (55)

•Role in DNA recombination: (56) (57) (58) (59)

•Role in transcription: (60) (61) (62) (63) (64) (65)



•Must be present for loading pol alpha onto origins, (66)

•Sld3 required for binding (67)



•Needed for cut5 chromatin association (68)

•needed to load 9-1-1 complex (69)



 •Must be present for loading pol alpha onto origins (70)

• Mcm8 needed to load rpa onto replication forks ? (71)

•Cdc7 required for binding (72)

•Needed for cut5 chromatin association (73)





•Small amount found in pml bodies. (74)

• alternative 30kDa subunit (75)

•possible control of levels by PARP(76)



1 subunit rpa (77)











Molecular weight


Biochemical properties




•Zn finger (78)

•multiple DNA binding sites (79) (80)




•Xripa/ importin b homologue ( though not for transport) (81)



• CENP (82)



 •Tag pola and vp16 (83)

• Polymerase alpha and primase (2)

• rad51/dmc (84)

• p53 (85) (86) (87)





•Phosphorylated by Mec1 in response to DNA damage (11)

•Phosphorylated (88)




Cellular location and expression


Other comments

• Alternative subunit in rice (89)









Molecular weight

 34 kDa

Biochemical properties




•DNA binding (79)


•Menin (90)

•Rad52 (91)




•Phosphorylated during meiosis (92)

• phosphorylated byMec1/3 (11) in both normal cell cycle and genotoxic stress (92) .In normal cell cycle modification is after the start of S  and probably only chromatin bound that is modified (93)



• in extracts dephosphorylated at end mitosis and binds to pre-replication centres. Phosphorylated form not chromatin bound in mitosis. (40) . Don’t see 2 forms present together. May be different in other species eg (4)



• Phosphorylated after association with ssDNA. (94)

•Phosphorylated by cyclin A-CDK and DNA-PK

(95) (96) – may be some obligate order in vitro

•Chromatin associated Rpa2 is phosphorylated  (93)

•Hyperphosphorylated on DNA damage (97) (98) seems to be via DNApk (99) or ATM (100) (ie confusing) and in apoptosis (93)



• phosphorylation multiple sites (101)




Cellular location and expression


Other comments


•Homologue reported rpa4 (rpa2) (75) Can interact with 1 and 3 but some find it separate from the other subunits (102) (103) , while others report always seen together (104) (105)










Molecular weight

 14 kDa (Sc) poorly conserved, eg  10 kDa (??); 8 kDa (Dm)

Biochemical properties




•DNA binding site (79)



 •Ruv B homologue (106)







Cellular location and expression


Other comments



13 Apr 08





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